I spoke to the EPA listening panel on June 16th regarding Methane reduction as a member of the Alliance of Nurses for Health Environments. Although a worldwide issue, Ohio is at high risk with Methane exposure. As of 2021, the Ohio oil and gas threat map indicated that 3.3 million people live in immediate threat radius of 103,084 active oil and gas wells, compressors, and processors. Over 780,000 schools are in that threat radius. It is estimated that 29,817 childhood asthma attacks are related to oil and gas ozone smog. Four counties have elevated cancer risk concern. In 2019, the Ohio Department of Health’s data showed approximately 1.25 million Ohio adults have been diagnosed with asthma. The childhood lifetime prevalence for Ohio is 11 children out of 100 have an asthma diagnosis. Methane and other volatile organic compounds (VOC) are toxic, being released by drilling. Peer-reviewed research links oil and gas production wells to babies born prematurely with low birth weights as well as increasing the risk of death. Methane and chemical releases associated with past and present oil, gas, and fracking affect human health. We need to support commonsense Methane rules by promoting renewable energy. I have been giving testimony since 2012 on the ill effects of Methane and other VOCs.
EarthWorks has done a remarkable job of making the invisible VISIBLE as seen in this video
There is so much damage that must be repaired. I have said before that my interests lie in prevention – we need educate on the hazards of our lifestyle and plastics dependence and how it affects our health. Then we need clean up past transgressions to the environment to promote health and prevent it from continuing to happen by sustainable living (I think that is a blog it itself). Some have been fortunate not to live in areas inflicted with air and water pollution but as our population grows and industrial and human energy grow, more neighborhoods see oil and gas production wells, both horizontal and vertical, which spew Methane and other VOCs. We need commonsense rules on the oil and gas industry and more renewable energy projects to offset coal and gas plants. Natural gas is far from natural. It is Methane and other VOCs plus radiation, same as coal. So, I am recommending two programs – Repairing the Damage: How invest in environmental reclamation can create good jobs. I am involved with ReImagine Appalachia and Ohio Environmental Council.
In addition, another program I am intimately involved with is A-Z Plastics. Each year we create zooms for education on the plastic pollution in our lives and what can be done. As I said, I can talk till I am blue on the dangers of Methane and plastics. But are the politicians and policy makers listening? This will be a great program and if you check out their webpage, there are links to all the programs, including me as a moderator on Union Solidarity. We are a group of environmental activists from different environmental groups concentrating on the effects of plastics in water and living bodies.
I will be at both of these programs in the audience. I hope I see you there. One last thing, get involved in the environmental issues. Feel free to comment. I want to know how we can improve the environment for all of us. As always, Rosie is at my feet sleeping through my zooms and writing.
This is my dog, Rosie, sound asleep on my lap. This is trust, something to be valued from our canines and other humans. How often can we damage a person’s trust in an individual, or for that matter, the government, medicine/science, or religion when memes, gaslighting, aggression, or violence are used to “power over” and shake the foundational beliefs of someone?
Nurses are the most trusted health professional in the world. And, as Rutherford (2014) stated: “Nursing’s trustworthiness is an intangible asset that warrants protection, as trust once lost is hard to recapture.” But, what happens when a nurse loses trust in her manager? When I was writing my dissertation, I truly wondered how trust factored into staying in the workplace after bullying. If a nurse lost trust in her/his manager, that they would protect her/him from the bully, would they leave the unit, transfer out, stay and become a bully themselves to stop from being bullied? How does trust factor into this situation?
If I were to do a survey today, would nurses trust their employer to do the right thing, keeping them safe from violence, provide adequate staffing or appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), and assisting with psychological first aid when the CoVID pandemic overwhelms? In Social Exchange Theory, people treat each other equally; they help each other. If this exchange is perceived as unequal, unfair, or with unwarranted aggression, distress occurs (Emerson, 1976; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984, Berry, 2015 ).
Work relationships create occupational stressors or buffer against other occupational stressors influencing appraisal and coping (Berry, 2015). If trust is broken with the organization through inability to protect during a pandemic, I would surmise moral injury would occur with posttraumatic stress symptoms. Many nurses will leave the profession. And, 2020 and 2021 will be pivotal years for healthcare professionals.
These are just random thoughts as I cope with my son’s CoVID diagnosis. As a nurse mom, I am distressed by this diagnosis but I am equally concerned about the nursing profession. I know our profession has survived the Spanish Flu, Smallpox, polio, and other pandemics. But it hit home here, in my family today while others try to shake the very foundations of science and trust regarding vaccines and pandemic.
Please, give health professionals a break. Take the vaccine. Wear the mask until we reach herd immunity through vaccination. And, please, stop the trying to cast distrust on the need for vaccination. we have to be better at protecting and caring for each other for nurses to continue to care for us.
Thanks for reading.
Emerson, R. M. (1976). Social Exchange Theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 335-362.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company
Rutherford MM. The Value of Trust to Nursing. Nurs Econ. 2014 Nov-Dec;32(6):283-8; 327; quiz 289. PMID: 26267958.
Oh yeah, my dissertation is somewhere out there to read.
I recently read among women, nurses have a higher rate on suicide than the general population. JAMA Psychiatry published this on April 14, 2021 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/2778209 and it is based on data from 2007 – 2018. Can you imagine if the year was 2020? It has been a hard year for nursing and I suspect, 2021 will continue to be difficult with the pandemic. Occupational and environmental nurses, whether staffing hospitals, clinics,, or industry need to know the potential signs of someone contemplating suicide. This is why I asked Judy A. Jobe, RN, BSN, a NISOH ERC master’s student to write this blog as credit for her MSN program:
“The suicide death of a coworker is considered a psychiatric emergency for nurse managers and coworkers left to process the feelings associated with this type of grief. The occupational health nurse (OHN) can assist nurse managers and coworkers in the grieving process. It is critical for the occupational health nurse to understand the psychological, social, and emotional implications for coworkers (suicide survivors) left to grieve the loss. Appropriate support and guidance immediately following the suicide death of a coworker will assist individuals through the normal grieving process and avoid suppressed emotions that may lead to personal and departmental dysfunction.” (Lynn, C., 2008)
Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. It was responsible for more than 47,500 deaths in 2019. (CDC, 2021)
In 2019, 12 million American adults seriously thought about suicide, 3.5 million made a planned suicide attempt, and 1.4 million attempted suicide. (CDC, 2021)
The suicide rate is expected to increase by 8.4% in 2020-2021 (McIntyre, R. & Lee, Y., 2020) due to increased social isolation and depression related to COVID.
These are sobering statistics in a time where a pandemic rules our lives: social distancing, masking, not being able to see people’s faces, not being able to hug or show we care by simple hand holding. As OHN’s, we continually evaluate our employee’s mental health and physical health. Healthcare professionals are stressed. COVID leaves no one untouched, and OHNs have been taught to look for signs of depression and possible suicidal ideation. We educate ourselves and our employees on suicide prevention, offer EAP services, make getting help easy and anonymous. Suicide prevention programs are everywhere, in every business environment, and most employees can tell you all about prevention and the resources available.
But what happens when one of your employees commits suicide? What can you, as the OHN, do for your employees at this time? How do you help your employees?
The unexpected and sudden death of a coworker often leaves fellow employees shocked and confused, lost in grief and despair, completely disrupting the “normal” workplace environment. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross originally defined 5 Stages of Grief®– denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance (EKRFoundation.org, 2021). Since her original publication in 1969, two additional stages have been added: shock at the onset and hope at the end, which have been suggested to help round out the model. The Stages of Grief are fluid, and one may go back and forth between them.. Individuals vary in their grief responses. It is essential to be supportive and accepting on where individuals are in their grief process. This is especially true when hospital staff, a team, lose a member. The daily stressors, both work and personal, make it challenging to work through grief. Suicides are more like sudden accidents; family and friends do not have time to adjust. Complicating the grieving process is the reality of the death and regrets for what may have or have not been said. Initially, co-workers may also feel a heightened sense of responsibility and guilt. They may keep asking themselves “What did I miss? What could I have done differently?” They tell themselves they somehow could have prevented it.
As the OHN, the suicide of a coworker is a traumatic crisis requiring intervention. Often referred to as suicide postvention, it can be defined as the “efforts made by individuals, organizations, and the local, state/tribal, and federal governments to assist those who have been impacted by suicide, and to reduce the harmful effects of exposure to suicide (Jordan, J., 2017)”. In 2015, the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention published a document titled Responding toGrief, Trauma, and Distress after Suicide: U.S. National Guidelines (Cook, F., 2017).These guidelines call for the development of postvention programs. To this date, the most recognized and widely used model is the U.S. military’s TAPS (Tragedy Assistance Program for Survivors) Suicide Postvention Model™ (Ruocco, K. et al., 2021). Still, all models encourage primary postvention resources (Andriessen, K. et al., 2019). The following guidelines are taken from Cynthia W. Lynn’s 2008 article in Workplace Health & Safety When a Coworker Completes Suicide:
Support and Education
The OHN plays an essential role in communication with the employees, establishing immediate, on-site resources such as chaplaincy services, critical incident stress management (CISM) teams, counselors, and crisis intervention support teams (CIST).
Being a visible, available presence for the employees. Making frequent rounds in all areas, all shifts.
Posting available resources
Hold survivor support meetings with the aid of the EAP
Acknowledge the feelings-Anger, guilt, fear, confusion. Many times the survivor will focus on what could have been done to prevent the suicide. These feelings are normal, but the focus should be on healing and moving forward. Focusing on the life of the victim can help survivors understand they are not responsible for others’ actions.
Allow coworkers and employees to express their grief in the way they feel comfortable. Not everyone grieves outwardly, and each person grieves on their own timeline. This is where providing resources such as EAP contacts can benefit these employees.
The OHN, as always, should be an active listener and be prepared to make appropriate referrals for those experiencing suicidal ideations, dysfunctional grieving, depression, PTSD symptoms, etc.
Here are some resources available to help your employees and coworkers:
As I sit in my study watching fat snowflakes drift past the window, my mind wanders to the warmer times of summer walking through the protected lands of the Allegheny Land Trust. From the depths of the woods, it is easier to feel part of the web of life that holds all of us. The forest ecosystem moves in a succession of interconnected living things toward a climax community, the equilibrium point where the annual production and import of resources exactly matches the annual consumption and export of resources. It is a self-perpetuating condition where the living systems are in perfect harmony with the supporting physical environment. The ant and the snail are no less partners than the mighty maples or the bear that occupy the climax community, all are interconnected and essential for sustained balance. Natural ecosystems progress through a succession unique to each place…
I watched with shocked fear and sorrow on Wednesday evening as the Congressional process of certifying the Electoral College Votes in the lawfully executed election of 2020 was disrupted by a mob of Trump supporters invading the halls of Congress and vandalizing offices and structures.
I woke up at 3am this morning. Usually this means I roll over, rearrange the dog between my husband and me and go back to sleep. Did not happen. I gave up at 4am after the cat, in his infinite wisdom, began to beg for attention. Thing is, it isn’t the cat but a God calling moment. These early wake ups usually are.
I am up. I have read my Bible. I have meditated and prayed (check, check, check) Then, I laugh to myself as I read yesterday’s entry, scolding myself for not doing my reading and gratitude journal early in the morning but late at night last night. So here I am, Lord, ready to be spoken to, ready to listen. I got woke for this moment.
And, with that, my favorite verses of Proverbs 31: 30 -31 lights the way and I am at peace. For those who don’t know the verse, “Charm is deceptive, and beauty is fleeting but a woman who fears the Lord is to be praised. Honor her for all that her hands have done, and let her works bring her praise at the city gates.”
I know so many women whose works have gone unnoticed or taken for granted. Thank them today, you husbands, you children, and yes, you grandchildren. Without her, most things are left undone. I am not asking for me, I am asking for all women. And women, recognize your own worth in all this. You are fearfully and wonderfully made and God has endowed you with some many talents. Love yourself!
And, as always, Oscar has his last say on my desk as I start the work of my hands.
1. Know you want to be a nurse before seeking education/licensure.
2. Know who you are, what your stress triggers are, how your buttons get pushed.
3. Know the patient population you want to work with and that there is other employment opportunities beside hospitals.
4. Know how to care for yourself – mentally, physically, emotionally, and spiritually. No one else will.
5. Know you are NOT perfect. You can not save everyone or control any other person except yourself. And, we all work to the best of our knowledge, skills, and abilities. We are nurses who care.
6. Know that your professional life is intertwined with your personal life and a balance needs to be maintained in order to be your best.
7. Know that nursing is a lifetime of learning, hard physical labor, and the most rewarding career a man or woman can live through but
8. Know when to ask for help for yourself, your patient, your unit, or your family. Knowing your limits and boundaries are a good thing. If you try to be all for everyone in your life, you will become a crispy critter and no longer enjoy your job or your life.
9. Know when to quit a toxic organization that blames the individual, adversely disciplines them rather than acknowledge systems failure by not providing the times, tools, and support to do the job.
10. Know you do make a difference ad your care has meaning to yourself, your patient, or the community you provide service to. You deserve a physically and psychologically SAFE workplace.
We have all become familiar with one kind of fossil fuel corporate shell game: the one where lower performing ‘assets’ (land, minerals, and ‘rights’) are sold off to small companies with weak legal connections to key human players and limited capital so that when clean-up and worker pay/healthcare obligations come due after the mining party is over, the small companies can declare bankruptcy and leave the taxpayer and underfunded state agencies on the hook for the hazardous waste and sick people <https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2020/01/09/kent-j09.html >. The Appalachian Storage Hub conference held this week in Canonsburg, PA illustrates a different bait and switch.
Bait and Switch- The Shine-stealers
When I first looked at the conference program, Perry Babb, caught my attention, naming his talk “A Low-Carbon Future for Natural Gas in the Appalachian Basin ” while touting his skills at ‘rescuing stranded natural gas assets’ for people on the hook financially. On the surface, it looks like the story of the broader greenwashing of natural gas as a ‘bridge fuel’ tool for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, obscuring the millions of cubic feet of ‘fugitive’ methane emissions at the wellheads, redirecting investment from renewables and proving the climate-friendly storyline to be fraud.
But his talk is part of another bait and switch. He speaks in Canonsburg to provide cover for other sleights of hand in shifting power-stories about the future of the Appalachian Basin petrochemical development. Why is one of the keynote speakers at the ‘storage hub’ conference behind a vertically integrated wellhead-to-product project that doesn’t need any shared storage? His project vision has literally nothing to do with the fantasy Appalachian Storage Hub Mont Belveiu-like scenario <https://environmentalintegrity.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/EIP_Ethane-hub-memo.pdf >, other than he also-uses natural gas. So, why the hell is he a main speaker? Partly because the ASH project has so few actual supporters to present. Take a look at their tired, blast from the dinosaur past website, like Becky Christmas of Reuter’s Upstream and their team of shiny tech-wizards wouldn’t answer the calls to shine up and sell the conference. They are stuck with Topline Analytics who hasn’t updated their website since 2014 (the financial story from today just doesn’t sell as well <https://www.toplineanalytics.com/shale-gas-matters/ >) and even they don’t mention going to the conference this year in ‘upcoming events’.
Babb’s team has designed an innovative, potentially sane medium-term manufacturing/ climate-transition business that could keep fossil fuel wealth multipliers in the local economy<https://www.appastorage.com/app/download/15607524/KeyState+NGS+Public+Updats+9.10.20.pdf >. It has replicable elements while following the thread of experience which teaches us that local contexts are unique and that when investment and design plans are copy-pasted across the world we end up with the colonial hell that is currently crashing our health, economy and critical ecological infrastructure. Babb offers the Appalachian Storage Hub project-from-hell a chance to rub off some of his ‘shine’. They use him to create a mirage. The wizards behind the curtain pretend their plan has something to do with carbon-capture scaled on-site to match the project. They pretend their plan is driven by needed products and not by what mining outputs they need to sell. They pretend their plan gives two shits about the massive bleeds of the earth’s blood and guts and vapors out into the atmosphere, about the climactic catastrophe they are spelling into existence with their arcane formulations of chemistry and debt. He builds churches but here at Canonsburg he’s selling his soul <http://www.keychurch.net/our-covenant.html > for new investors. At the scale of major manufacturing, working in the existing world system, even for someone who recognizes the need to transition, the money-lenders circle around the petrochemical industry.
Bait and Switch- “Game-changer?” Or “Just a warehouse”
Another lead speaker, Mike Tritt, says in his press release on the conference website that ASH won’t be built as it was proposed <https://www.appastorage.com/presentations/mike-tritt-press-release/ >. Damn guys. But, “Lane Power’s leader is convinced rather than one large storage facility, a number of smaller storage projects will be built in the Appalachian Basin, offering capacities between 2 million barrels and five million barrels, costing between $200 and $300 million.” He would know, his team actually builds the underground caverns to store the stuff. David Hooker of Mountaineer NGL storage called Hedrick’s competing Appalachian Storage Hub project ‘pie in the sky,’ saying it’s too large for the needs of the region. Hooker also said he has no plans to turn his project into anything like the Mont Belvieu complex, with its long history of mishaps and environmental violations. “We just want to be a warehouse,” he told James Bruggers of Inside Climate News<https://insideclimatenews.org/news/20032020/appalachia-future-center-petrochemicals-coronavirus-plastic-ethane >. Hooker is currently reapplying for permits to Ohio Department of “Environmental Protection” after Ohio DEP failed to follow their legal public comment process for a project-type which has never been built in our region and which fails catastrophically when and whereever it does fail <https://www.tankstoragemag.com/2020/09/30/ohio-cancels-drilling-permits-for-mountaineer-ngl-storage/ >.
According to the Department of Energy report “All Benefits, No Costs!,” Appalachia can separate 1.1 million BPD into discreet natural gas liquid components, so the two million barrel storage cavern handles a couple days worth of production in a floating capacity for downstream users, while most will still be going away in pipelines, particularly the ATEX capacity expansion. The storage hub Tritt and Hooker refer to is truly just a dirty, dangerous warehouse for a product which, while initially generating gasps of amazement <https://www.pinterest.com/pin/320670435943581100/ >, is now generally recognized as a scourge covering over the planet in garbage and poison <https://psmag.com/environment/almost-all-of-the-plastic-produced-since-1950-is-still-in-landfills >. Besides greenwashing, and shine-stealing, the bad wizards behind the Appalachian Storage Hub (and their stooges at county economic development offices) are jobswashing, fooling the people who will suffer the impacts of the petrochemical build-out on the Ohio River into thinking that, at least, it will lead to long-term money in the pockets of regular working people <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YWyCCJ6B2WE >.
When the American Chemical Council makes up the widely-repeated story about a hundred thousand jobs coming to the region, the layers of bullshit are literally so many and so deep that the muck would suck off your shoes and leave you cussing and coming back with a shovel to extract your footwear. Really. The assumptions built into their models have proven to be wrong in the past. They get paid to make planned facilities look better-than-reality, to secure government funds and investors, to convince people-in-the-way who might complain at public hearings and fight permits that they will benefit and never feel costs. Please read Sean O’Leary’s useful true accounting, “Lies, Damn Lies, and Economic Impact Studies” <https://ohiorivervalleyinstitute.org/lies-damned-lies-and-economic-impact-studies/ > about this project’s data sources and methodologies.
Even in the ACC study used to transmit politically-useful fraudulent claims about the economic impacts of the proposed development, they reveal the true driver of the project. As much as they wish to dress the industry up in the appearance of ‘the public good,’ their calculations are all about using all the mined resource they can get their hands on, as quick as possible. And this is opposite the public interest.
From their report (my comments in italics):
The Appalachian region is an ideal location for the emergence of a second major petrochemical manufacturing hub in the United States, offering benefits such as:
Proximity to abundant NGL resources from the Marcellus/Utica and Rogersville shale formations [the mine is the driver]
Proximity to manufacturing markets in the Midwest and along much of the East Coast [the distance to Midwest and East Coast is relative to how far the NGLs are processed. If they are still mixed, liquid hazardous material, the cost of using existing pipelines versus the price of the unrefined material is the issue; if they are moving nurdles and processed chemicals valuable enough to warrant paying to move by tanker, they can move by road/rail/barge… the critical issue is to limit the distance the unrefined chemical has to move]
-Opportunity to strengthen the U.S. economy by providing employment and supply diversity [one could provide employment almost any other way, what if our government was giving $500,000 to 80,000 smallish businesses instead of sending Chuck Zelek to the ASH Conference with a briefcase full of $40 billion in easy debt for big dogs only?; the key here is creating multiple sites to keep the processing of the raw mine material moving at the pace of the wellheads]
-Opportunity to enable high-value ethane use to create U.S.-made products, while avoiding ethane rejection [burning ethane or selling it below cost of transport is the great driver, here mentioned explicitly]
More or less, the idea that we need the product is not mentioned as a potential benefit of a potential hub located here. Tritt does mention potential for clients for hydrogen storage. Here is a zero carbon emissions fuel, which requires massive amounts of mostly natural gas (or maybe even Clean Coal TM?!) -fueled electricity to separate the hydrogen and store it for fuel, making it a perfect greenwashing candidate for public consumption while also helping with the apparently critical challenge of creating markets for that financially-stranded natural gas.
Tritt of Lane Power will headline the ASH conference because any cavern storage building project is a huge capital expense and he makes his money from the highly specialized work of building them. I’d say not many folks could secure good enough liability insurance or otherwise manage cost of risk to handle the fall-out when a cavern leaks or blows at the wellhead and creates a toxic cloud and/or massive explosion <https://ogst.ifpenergiesnouvelles.fr/articles/ogst/full_html/2019/01/ogst180301/ogst180301.html>. But Tritt of Lane Power knows and makes known that the real prospect for “development” is nothing like the showy studies presented to the public. He will get his team whatever money he can from the pent up political energy that created all those great promotional materials that cover the asses of the “public servants” who need to subsidize the projects. And he will tell the conference goers that the project in the promo and the reality are completely different because he knows the public doesn’t read much. Whoever you are, reading this blog, you know you are the exception (now what are we going to do about it?).
Bait and Switch – The Power of the Four Denials
As people every one of us tangled in a massive complex infrastructure that sustains our very lives through burning of fossil fuels, we are dependent on fossil fuels. They are precious. SOME of the chemistry and engineering that moves and transforms them does, whether we like it or not, serve us (and as one who enjoys hot showers, coffee, internet and cheap food particularly, I admit I often do like it, even as I experiment with ways to get these pleasures differently <https://newdream.org/blog/excerpt-the-art-of-frugal-hedonism >). But some of the mining and burning is clearly stupid and serving no one but the wealthy mining gambler as high-paid CEO, the engineer with a big paycheck following orders and making the will of the schemers material and concrete, the super-rich financier needing a massive capital-intensive project where to park their money outside a bank. So-called ‘environmentalists’ are scripted to “Just Say No” to all big projects and then painted as naive, but we are more than the term and the protest sign <https://www.resilience.org/stories/2020-10-13/who-is-we/ >. The ‘industrialists’ are scripted to feed projects to the ‘economic developmentalists’ that they know will sacrifice the regions where they are built, poisoning and trapping people with no other options for livelihood. Both tribes pretend they don’t know that and that the opposite is true.
rethinking our relationship to the fossil fuels and mined minerals themselves, considering that they have a place in their ground, that they and the lands and beings surrounding them have value as working communities of life and spirit, energy and structure, and not only as extracted, disembodied commodities.
Giving love to government regulators and negotiators in tough places trying to figure out how to square a circle and fit round pegs of future life-support in square holes of a culture in a millennias-long death spiral
Loving fossil fuel industry folks who have “made both the delights and the difficulties of our current lives possible [and…] need non-violent communications and support in order to divest and/or to fuel transformation.”
A complete reconfiguring of the fossil fuel industry. Currently dominated by rapacious profit-driven and destructive corporate entities supporting and protected by military adventure, fossil fuel producers surely need to be taken into public ownership and regulated to invest income in the production of renewables as well as for the public good more broadly… A possibility here though is for fossil fuels and other minerals to be extracted only under structures akin to a Norway-style sovereign wealth fund, established, to ensure responsible and long-term management of revenue from Norway’s oil and gas resources in the North Sea so that this wealth benefits both current and future generations.
Let’s STOP FALLING FOR the bait and switch, let’s stop ENABLING the bait and switch, let’s stop ENACTING the bait and switch on our neighbors. I know its hard to be real, to look at the four denials and our part in them, to consider the scale of what is needed, but it beats the alternative. We are not a bunch of suckers, hanging on every lying word of some sad wizard with a powerpoint behind a shabby curtain. There’s no place like home everybody.